· An epidemiological modeling study that used confirmed COVID-19 cases and deaths from January 31–April 22, estimated adjusted case fatality rates in both Canada and the US of less than 2% when assuming an estimated reporting rate of less than 50%.
· An observational study of 73 COVID-19 patients, 53 of whom were admitted to the ICU, found that patients who experienced a vascular event were more likely to have a low serum albumin.
· A prospective cohort study in England, Wales, and Scotland reports disease course and demographic data from over 20,000 COVID-19 patients, representing 34% of all hospitalized COVID-19 patients in these countries. The authors believe that the rapidity by which this data was collected emphasizes the importance of forward-preparedness planning for pandemics.
Understanding the Pathology
· A prospective cohort study of 5,279 COVID-19 positive patients found that age was the strongest risk factor for hospitalization; however, when looking at patients with critical illness, admission oxygen saturation < 88%, troponin > 1, C-reactive protein > 200, and D-dimer > 2500 exhibited stronger associations than age.
Transmission and Prevention
· An analysis of human nasal mucus and sputum mixed with SARS-CoV-2 under different environmental conditions found that the viral half-life and viral load were decreased under conditions with warmer temperature and higher humidity, suggesting possible seasonal drive for future outbreaks peaking during cold and dry periods.
· A case series from a skilled nursing facility in California demonstrated successful prevention of further infections after two residents tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Their approach included screening all residents and staff members with RT-PCR, serial testing for positive SARS-CoV-2 residents, and cohort isolation for those who tested positive.
· Guidelines and recommendations for caring for COVID-19 patients include:
o A novel epidemiological risk score to predict diagnosis of COVID-19